With front porches lifted from Chrar-e-Sharief shrine, façade worked on stones and bricks’ influenced by Jama Masjid and water fountains a replica of Mughal garden Chesmashahi — Srinagar’s first government-owned showpiece shopping mall, Sangarmaal, was thrown open to public on Saturday evening by Chief Minister […]
CHANDIGARH: Former professor of Chandigarh College of Architecture, Kiran Joshi, on Friday claimed that she was the one making sincere efforts to persuade the administration to inventory and digitize all records on the pattern of Foundation Le Corbusier and had also submitted two detailed reports […]
Leh Ladakh is emerging as a new offbeat destination during Summers for Indian tourists. One can travel by road via Manali or Srinagar or take a flight from Delhi to reach Leh.
Suggestive Itinerary for Leh Ladakh Tour. Day-01
Arrival at Leh Airport. Leh is at an elevation of (3500 Mtrs) above the sea level. You will be received by our representative and transferred to hotel dragon. Traditional Check-in, welcome tea/coffee will be served. Complete rest to get acclimatize. After lunch drive to visit Leh Palace, Shanti Stupa and drop at Leh Market, nice walk while returning to the Hotel. Overnight Hotel.
The full day of the visit, after Breakfast drive about 40 Kms (3 to 4 hours) en route visit Sindhu Ghat, Shey, Thiksey and Stok Palace Museum. Overnight Hotel
The full day of the visit, after Breakfast drive 40 Kms (3 to 4 hours) visit Spituk Monastery, Kali Mata, Pather Sahib, Magnetic hill, Confluence of Zanskar – Indus river and Hall of fame. Overnight Hotel.
Full day trip, after early Breakfast leave for Pangong Lake, drive 154 Kms (7 to 8 hours) through Changla Pass (5300 Mtrs,17,350fts) one of the highest motorable roads in the world. Visit the beautiful Pangong Lake forms a part of the border area between India and China. This Large, serene Lake at an altitude of 13,930 fts above the sea level has a brilliant colour variation including deep blue, turquoise etc. Enjoy your Packed Lunch on the bank of Lake. Drive back to Leh. Overnight Hotel.
After Breakfast drive 39 Kms (2 to 3 hours) World Highest Motorable Road, Khardongla Pass ranging at (5603 mtrs, 18380 fts. At the top enjoy the natural beauty of the snow-capped mountain. Return to Hotel.
After Lunch one is free to explore Leh Baazar and surrounding. Overnight Hotel.
After Breakfast Transfer to the Airport and fly back to Delhi with Sweet memories of Ladakh.
• Welcome Tea / Coffee on arrival.
• Fruit Basket and Cookies in every room.
• Accommodation in well appointed Deluxe Double Room with LCD TV(A Category Class Room).
• Daily Bed Tea, Buffet Breakfast, Lunch & Dinner.
• Airport Pick up and Drop.
• Transportation for all sightseeing places as per the itinerary.
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Harmful algal blooms, which negatively affect coastal ecosystems, public health, economies and fisheries around the world, may be promoted by vitamins B-1 and B-12 according to Stony Brook University scientists, whose findings were published in an early online edition (Nov. 10) and in the current issue (Nov. 30) of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS ).
Professor Christopher J. Gobler, Ph.D., research scientist Ying Zhong Tang, and PhD candidate Florian Koch of the School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at Stony Brook conducted experiments to evaluate whether the species of phytoplankton which form harmful algal blooms (HAB’s) require B-vitamins to grow. Harmful algal blooms are caused by phytoplankton and have a negative impact on coastal ecosystems and fisheries worldwide and cost the U.S. economy alone hundreds of millions of dollars annually. The impacts of harmful algal blooms have intensified in recent decades and most research has focused on chemical nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus as causative agents of these blooms. Vitamins have not been considered as prime suspects since prior investigations suggested that only a small portion of phytoplankton species require B-vitamins for growth.
“Harmful algal blooms are not a new phenomenon, although many people may know them by other names such as red tides or brown tides,” Dr Gobler said. “These events can harm humans by causing poisoning from shellfish contaminated with algal toxins and can damage marine ecosystems by killing fish and other marine life. The distribution, frequency and intensity of these events have increased across the globe and scientists have been struggling to determine why this is happening.”
Every coastal state in the United States experiences harmful algal blooms, according to Dr. Gobler.
While previous studies have examined the role of nutrients in harmful algal blooms, “the importance of coenzymes and particularly vitamins (vitamins B-1, B-7 and B-12 ) in regulating and stimulating harmful algal blooms has rarely been considered,” the researchers wrote.
“New methods have recently been developed to measure concentrations of vitamins B-1 and B-12 in the ocean and we discovered that vitamin levels were co-varying with the occurrence of HABs,” Dr. Gobler said.
The researchers examined more than 40 harmful algal bloom species in the laboratory and reported that all but one of the species tested (96%) required vitamin B-12 and that 20 of 27 species (74%) required vitamin B-1. In addition, the concentrations of vitamins B-1 and B-12 needed by the toxic algae were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton. The concentrations measured as needed for growth in the lab correspond closely to vitamin concentrations reported in coastal waters, suggesting that HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust the available supply of vitamins in hours to days. These findings demonstrate the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HAB’s, the authors wrote.
The larger than expected vitamin requirements of harmful algal blooms partly stems from the fact that most of these events are caused by a class of algae called dinoflagellates. Dinoflagellates often consume large organic molecules such as amino acids and proteins that are similar to vitamins. The authors wrote “vitamins are among a suite of organic compounds dinoflagellates exploit for growth. Since dinoflagellates are notorious for the ability to form HAB’s, this study suggests vitamins are key organic compounds that may influence the occurrence of HAB’s of dinoflagellates.”
Harmful algal blooms have had a devastating impact on many fisheries and ecosystems and there is great interest in curtailing these events. However, discovering the most important source of vitamins to HAB’s may prove challenging. Dr Gobler said. “There are a lot of efforts right now to protect coastal ecosystems against HAB’s. Many efforts have been made to curb nitrogen loads since this nutrient has been considered the primary chemical promoting these events. This study demonstrates that vitamins must also be considered in order to understand the dynamics of HAB’s.” While the sources of nitrogen to coastal waters are well known, Dr Gobler notes that “we now need to identify the major sources vitamins promoting harmful algal blooms.”
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Like the plastic is considered somewhere in the 60 safe sources of income that would change the world, now this is nanotechnology that holds the attention of most investors in the future – and this is just the beginning.
What is really nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the ability to engineer and atomic materials, one after the other molecule. From the bottom up. This is a revolution unlike any other and that is precisely why American companies have invested huge sums in research and development in nanotechnology – reportedly comes to a total of $ 3 billion with 50% of the amount invested in electronics and information technology. 37% of the amount designated in the material and manufacturing industry, another 8% were referred to the industry health and wellness and 4% more channelled the energy and environment sectors.
Moreover, in the last decade invested risk capital funds in the US and $ 5 billion in companies engaged in the development of nano-technology – 86% of the total investment of risk capital funds and in the field. All these amounts were added $ 12 billion that the US government transferred to the Palestinian National Nanotechnology.
Useful nanotechnology Today
Energy and Environment – Industry catalysts (Catalysts) worldwide uses nano-technology developments in an attempt to make a clean environment – such as when you need to remove pollutants from the exhaust of cars. Another example is the use of tiny components, rechargeable batteries, therefore, high speed due to the special electrode material containing nanocomponents.
Medicine – Already a number of drugs for infectious diseases and cancer among other contents contain soluble components in the development of nanotechnology. Moreover, in recent years that entered the market a number of medical imaging devices based on nanomaterials who wish to destroy the cancer cells spread in the body. Moreover, nanotechnology also helps many researchers to develop equipment that helps in diagnosing early symptoms of the disease.
Materials – Nanotechnology very important role in the creation of tiny carbon nanotubes actually weaving interlocking composite materials, which are characterized by the resulting high electrical conductivity and scant physical weight.
Consumer Goods – In recent years the use of nanoparticles increasingly prevalent number of manufacturing industries including food industry sectors, cosmetics and sunscreens. The minimum size of the particle contains several unique characteristics such as strength greater protection from the sun, greater durability of the fabric to stains and more.
National Science Foundation in the United States predicted that by 2015, sales of nano-based products will come up to a total of a trillion dollars and will provide 800,000 new jobs in the United States alone. If we consider that now employs nanotechnology industry 160,000 workers in the United States each year and the present total size by 25% of people – they have no choice about drawing that prediction may be realized even spoken.
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